Millennial oriental pedagogical science, it’s contemporary and future
Fedyna W. S.
Ph.D. in education
Ivan Franko National University of Lviv
Key words: future oriental specialists, educational process, oriental philosophers, formation, historical analysis.
Ключевые слова: будущие специалисты-востоковеды, учебный процесс, мыслители Востока, профессиональное становление, исторический анализ.
Globalization trends contribute to the understanding of communication between different cultural systems as a significant element of the picture of the modern world. The processes, connected with the globalization phenomenon, foresee frequent regular contacts in various fields between different cultures representatives. On the whole the intercultural meetings stopped to be something extraordinary. This situation requires the simultaneous solving of the practical problems and issues cultural adaptation.
Quality and efficiency of education directly depends on the level of the pedagogical science development and its ability to provide the modern society by the highly qualified specialists. Pedagogical research in recent years has enriched the scientific opinion by important scientific conclusions and new concepts of educational organization. All the projects are connected with the study of specialists vocational training. Our attention will be concentrated on the professional training in the sphere of oriental study. Because of this a brief analysis of foreign and Ukrainian experience of preparation of oriental specialists is significantly important.
While speaking about the system of preparation of oriental specialists in the U.S.A. we should emphasize the fact of institutions’ development. The oriental departments were created by certain universities in 1920–1940-ies. Later, in 1940–1959 oriental institutes were formed and they studied current problems of the East. Since 1959 and up to now is the period of the federal government activity for the needs of education [9, 275].The facts is that with the passing years the situation in the U.S.A. concerning the attitude to the oriental science has improved. At the outset the departments were opened, later – the institutes and at last the government became interested in this scientific problem.
Australia manifested its interest to the countries of Asia and the Far East because of its geographic proximity required the establishment of good neighborly relations. Australia’s interest in the study of economic and political problems of the North-East Asia and the Far East countries [2, 247].
Orientalism has emerged in Europe as science due to which were studied the languages of the Bible and Muslim nations. Later on Orientalism in Europe began to serve practical purposes, such as: the conquest of the East countries, creation of the military-administrative structures, shopping centers, missionary institutions.
Due to the needs of the languages specialists, specialists in political system, religions and traditions the first oriental institutions appeared where the training of the relevant oriental specialists began.
The primary stage of the Danish Oriental science development was determined be the activity of the theologizes [10, 58]. So, Denmark was preparing not only specialized staff-Orientalist to achieve certain practical problems, but also formed the specialist for whom the culture and mentality of the other nation has become the personal values.
In Germany, the University of Leipzig is conducting the preparation of the research specialists in the problems of Africa and the Middle East with the purpose of the development and promotion of diplomatic, foreign trade activities and with the purpose to prepare personnel for scientific institutions in Germany [3, 89; 5, 236].
As the Arab states were French colonies, it is evident, that France since the IX-th century has been connected with the Arab countries by the close trade ties and rather frequently joined the military clashes with them [11, 149].
As for Ukraine, the interest in East and its study has a long and deep tradition. This interest was felt in times of Kievan Rus, which is proved by chronicle stories (Syrian, Arabic). Two or three centuries ago Ukrainian philologists and scientists paid attention to the Middle East – the Crimea, Turkey, Persia, the Caucasus, the Balkans – and it is stated by that time mailing and chronicles.
There was the school of the ancient judish language in Kyiv in the XI-th century. Cleverly engaging young professionals in the scientific oriental activity, the scientists, including Agatangel Crimean, significantly expanded the range of people who have studied history and culture of the peoples of the East. Agatangel Crimean did everything possible to prepare qualified specialists in the field of history and culture of the East. This is evidenced by teaching several subjects in the Lazarev Institute, which in one or another way contributed to the preparation of professional Orientalists. Here was taught the history of Semitic languages, were conducted workshops on reading historical and geographical passages, was read the Quran, was taught the history of Arabic literature, especially poetry. All this contributed to the personnel trained Orientalist [4, 147; 8, 234]. Specifically trained oriental specialists for the commercial field were taught in the Middle East Institute in Kiev in 1918 and this was made on the base of two faculties – consular and commercial ones. In the severe lack of qualified specialists Orientalists − Ukrainian National Association of Orientalists (VUNAS) aims to organize in Ukraine special oriental institution of higher education to train highly skilled workers in the East. The Kyiv branch of VUNAS was the first to put this idea into life and in 1925 it organized Oriental Studies where in addition to Arabic, Persian and Turkish languages was introduced the teaching of geography, ethnography, art, architecture and economy of the East. With the emergence of such disciplines became the deeper, understanding of the East by the future Oriental experts. A large group of students Intrigued by some problems of trade relations with the Eastern countries, especially Iran and Turkey, called up to create two asystentaturies at the Department of Eastern Economy. This desire on the part of students was a clear manifestation of the further and deeper interest in the East. The study on the courses such subjects as the constitution of the East, consular and embassy law shows the expansion of the study of the East and it foresees the training of the future diplomats and lawyers. Although the need for oriental specialists, seems to increase, but as statistics evidence, of 20 people who in 1928 completed the courses, only 8 persons began to work directly in the field of oriental studies, namely: 4 persons became post graduate students, 2 persons were working in Tajikistan, one in Uzbekistan. It should be noted that 8 people who have found practical implementation in the specialty without completing higher education – it was only courses. Later courses began to function as Ukrainian State Rates Oriental Studies. This fact made it possible to extend the range of disciplines, increase the staff of teachers and in general to improve the work of rates. Based on these rates in 1930 were established three-years „Professional Oriental Studies and Oriental Languages”, which is a special secondary educational institution for training Oriental specialists, who wish to devote themselves to work in the fields of this science.
Generally, the basis of training in college was put the full and complete study of oriental languages, because without perfect knowledge of the language is impossible to imagine a professional-orientalist, at least practical specialist. Therefore, the study of the main eastern language is made for all the three educational years in college [6, 182].
In the late 70-ies of the XX-th century in Shevchenko Kyiv University was for the first time introduced the teaching of the Eastern language (Arabic and Japanese) as the second language on the faculty of Roman-Germanic languages. Later in the 80-ies–90-ies of the XX century the Department of theory and practice of translation of oriental languages was opened. Since 2001 the Arabic, Persian and Hindi languages has been taught on the Department of Middle East. In 2004 the Departments of Chinese, Korean and Japanese languages were opened. The main directions of scientific work of the Department is comparative linguistic researches, theory and practice of translation, lingvopragmatics, educational, historical lexicography, ethnolinguistics, intercultural communication, language and literary relationships between the Far East and Ukraine.
In Kyiv operates at present only one higher education institution – Kyiv Institute of Oriental lingvistics and law, which cooperates with the Institute of Oriental Studies of the National Academy of Sciences and Kyiv Gymnasium of Oriental Languages. Graduates of the University can work as teachers of two foreign languages: English and Oriental (Arabic, Persian, Chinese, Korean, Turkish, Hindi), translators, reviewers and researchers in linguistics and literature spheres.
In 1918, in Simferopol was created Tauric University, where in 1919 was opened the Eastern faculty with the departments of Arabic, Turkic-Tatar philology, Muslim law. Now in Vernadskyi Tavria National University is the faculty of the Crimean Tatar and Oriental Studies with the departments of Tatar Linguistics, Crimean Tatar literature department and the Department of Oriental Languages. As an independent unit the Department of the Crimean Tatar literature began its operation only in times of the independent Ukraine – in 1992. The Department of Crimean Tatar Linguistics trains scientists who would conduct scientific researches in the areas of historical lexicology of languages, would study the problem of mutual influence and mutual exchange of the related and unrelated languages.
In eastern Ukraine, the situation with the preparation of oriental staff also undergoes its development.
Shevchenko State Pedagogical University of Lugansk was set up in 1997 the Department of Speech Practice. The range of languages taught in the department reflects the fundamental and dynamic changes in the foreign life of Ukraine and describes the multi-direction of its relations with the East. Here are prepared oriental philologists of the oriental languages like Japanese, Arabic, Chinese, Turkish and Hebrew. The Institute of Oriental Languages has Youth Club of Eastern cultures, which provides cooperation and further professional development of the young oriental specialists .
In Dnipropetrovsk National University at the Philological Faculty in the 90's of the XX century was created the Department of Comparative Studies of Eastern and English-speaking countries, which train specialists in oriental philology of such specialties as Chinese language and literature, Japanese language and literature .
The twenties of the XX-th century are accounted to be the flowering of Oriental Studies at Lviv University. At that time the specialists of semitology, altaists, mongolaists, arabists, specialists of iranism and indology were working here. At the Faculty of Humanities of Lviv National University since 1938 has been the operating Institute of Oriental Studies, where there nine operating departments, which taught 35 oriental languages. After World War II Orientalism in Ukraine did not develop, it was not considered urgent and necessary. Remained very few scientists for whom the East was part of the soul, but they were unable to apply their knowledge. None of them had no real powers and possibilities for the revival of Oriental Studies, but they tried to do something. But time passes and gradually is increasing the demand for Oriental studies, it becomes more conspicuous, and the necessity for the recovery of oriental studies did not subside, but the idea did not find support from the government. In 1967 at the Faculty of Philology were established courses of Arabic and Persian languages. Despite the success of students Orientalists administration of rector Maksymovych did not want to understand the meaning of oriental science. On November 1, 1997 in the University Department of Oriental Studies was established, headed by the famous orientalist J. R. Dashkevych. The Department had educational material that contributed to better preparation of the professionals.
Scientists, M. S Kapytsa and V. M Alpatov distinguish such signs of domestic Oriental Studies, which were inherent in this or that period: stage 1 − (beginning of 60-70s of the XIX century) – is characterized by extensive specialization of experts, the tendency to the practical orientation; close relationship with the studied countries and at the same time a considerable gap from the West countries; stage 2 − (1880−1919) – on this was stage narrow specialist. The interest to the practical study of the East decreased; stage 3 − (1920−1960) – predominates interest to the modern time, intensifying contacts with the practice, transformation of Oriental Studies of Russian into a multinational one; stage 4 − (70−80 years of XX century) – decreasing of interest to the theory and to the general concepts, orientalism acquired factual nature [1, 17].
In this context with the purpose of optimal organization of educational process of students- orientalists, we should pay attention to the views of teachers, thinkers who dedicated of their works to the developing programs for the harmonious development of a personality. As we are talking about training the East experts in any spheres, we’ll focus on the views of prominent philosophers of the Islamic world, among whom are assigned the founder of Arab Philosophy Al Kindi, scholars al-Farabi, Al-Biruni, al-Ghazali, Avicenna − the Advisor of rulers of the Arab East, public figure Ibn Khaldun and many others. These outstanding people have put forward many reasonable ideas and interesting philosophical arguments.
Al-Kindi, in particular, advocated the concept of the four types of intelligence of actual, potential, acquired and that which appears. He was convinced that science should be above religion, he insisted on the formation of a child by developing of high intelligence, but not Muslim fanaticism.
Malko Mirza Khan also opposed the scholastic system of education and developed educational content of the new system, expanding the range of subjects, which provided teaching of the secular subjects. He considered the basis of objective study the development of mental abilities of children. Important role in teaching ideas of Malko Khan plays the international and patriotic education.
Moral principle was convinced another scientist-philosopher al-Ghazali, should be formed by self-education, which began of self-knowledge and introspection. Understanding the fault of others, a person can see own weaknesses and in order to overcome the moral defects, one should hope and believe in God's help, one should gain patience and make certain efforts in any case. If addiction rooted in a person too seriously, it can be replaced by less harmful, and then get rid of completely.
Another thinker of the East – Tusi Assad saw the perfect learning and education process in collaboration of teachers, parents and a pupil, where each one plays its role: the teacher is responsible for the influence on the mind of the pupil. The main objective of the teacher is to win the sympathy and confidence of the pupils. In this case, the teacher acts as a doctor because the patient recovery depends largely on how he believes and trusts his doctor. So often in the East one can hear the phrase with which parents transfer their children into the hands of the teacher: „flesh is yours and bones are mine”.
According to Avicenna, the foundation of any education is to master above all the skills to read and write. This overall development of the child preceded vocational training, and as soon as the pupil got the basis of reading and writing, he should be prepared for a future profession and actually taught it – teenager had to start working and earning money.
Ibn Sina says that students will respect each other and help in mastering science one another when their training is common. If a child learns alone – it makes her unhappy. In the Middle Ages in the East, including Iran study had a group lesson nature. Class or group in our current understanding has not yet emerged; class system has not yet appeared. Feature of science is as follows: student does not see immediate benefit of science, but at the end he realizes the benefits and purposes [13, 127-138].
Omar Khayyam believed that students acquired knowledge not only of the teachers’ messages or informative sources − books, but also in the process of direct study of vital phenomena. Skills and habits are acquired as a result of the practical application of knowledge and constant repetition.
East educator Hamza Hakimzade to make material more accessible began studies with historical explanations – this way of presentation facilitated the process of learning. Niaz believed that books should be picturesque, it raised interest to reading and love to books. Teachers’ role was to cause the love and respect to themselves, showing methods of correction of bad behavior. Training would be perfect when it, along with presentation of educational materials, provides „disclosure of mind” of the student for the successful assimilation of this material.
With all the achievements of the Eastern teachers didactic training base was still very weak as a result the learning itself was difficult, lengthy and not very effective. The basic method of teaching was mechanical learning, remembering, rewriting, etc. In this regard as the most positive features in learning were cultivated diligences, respect of the teachers, patience, self-restrike. Creative teaching methods in the eastern schools were minor in nature and were used primarily as part of elite education. The most common were discussions – group or dialogic, and informal conversations with the teacher and his students. Training and education aimed at the formation of members of certain classes and professions, did not take into account the interests of the children’s age. The educational process is sharply at odds with the needs of children, resulting in emerging conflict between the natural aspirations of children and the system of forms and methods of education. And so physical punishment was the main stimulus to student’s success. In the context of higher education the main teaching methods at the time were reading and commenting on various books of literature. Students under the guidance of the teachers studied the most authoritative work on a particular subject. Usually the learning took place as follows: the student was reading and the teacher during reading did comments that sometimes turned into a detailed lecture. Students, at that time, were making abstracts. Special criers from time to time were out loudly what the teacher considered crying to be the most important. They played the role of coaches and controllers.
As a result of political, economic and social changes according to the Bologna process, has increased the tendency towards integration of education, which makes the state to take part in shaping the European Higher Education Area, to expand cooperation with the other countries in the educational sphere. Evidences of growing interest to the East are opening all over Ukraine, either technical or humanities universities’ faculties of Oriental Languages, oriental departments. These facts give grounds to say that Ukraine has a good scientific basis for restoration of oriental tradition, that requires for its development of highly professional Orientalists. So, this social value of professional Orientalists should be a good incentive for those who are seeking to master oriental knowledge.
These days, when science is moving forward, with available sufficient educational institutions in Ukraine should be payed great attention to training of new generations of highly qualified Orientalists who would begin to unite their forces around a new center of oriental studies in Ukraine and would be able to put the teaching of oriental subjects at high level.
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