Peculiarities of homo economicus becoming in market society
Master of Philosophical Science, associate professor of philosophy and sociology department
South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University after K.D. Ushinskiy
Keywords: homo economicus, market-oriented personality, education, economics, economic thought, economic behavior, economic awareness, economic culture
Ключевые слова: человек экономический, личность рыночного типа, образование, экономическое образование, экономическое мышление, экономическое поведение, экономическое сознание, экономическая культура.
Many scholars were engaged in the philosophical analysis of economic and educational issues, among their names are O. Yukhymovych , L. Kyrylenko, L. Krupska, I. Parkhomenko, and I. Tymchenko . Pedagogical aspect of economic education formation was investigated by O. Varetska , B. Dratver , S. Kapirulina , V. Nazarenko , N. Pasichnyk , L. Puzhaichereda , V. Sadkina , O. Sukhova  and by many others. Problems of theory and practice are considered in works of S. Klepka , N. Kodak , H. Mutsenko , and A. Felechko .
Market-type person is the product of modern capitalistic society. And this is the exact type of person developed countries are interested in. New socio-economic conditions appear in leading countries and for the businesses equipped with new machinery the workers of new type are needed. We consider the individual of new type as a market-type person or the Homo Economicus. In the terms of today it is important that citizens of Ukraine worked for the benefit of government, that their knowledge corresponded the swift production development as the market requires creative individuals with unconventional thinking, capable of adoption and establishment of innovations. In the modern innovative society of market economy the particular attention should be paid to the formation of the “market type” person or the Homo Economicus. The topical task of today that the state social policy generally sets is the solution of social, economic and cultural problems, which may be seen in the readiness of the person to live and work under the new socio-economic conditions that are determined by the market economy. The important part in this process is assigned to economic culture, economic thinking and economic education.
Economic culture is one of the culture types, that is why we will clarify the meaning of the notion “culture” before the consideration of this question. The notion is one of the most widely-spread in the various reflections about the perennial problems of mankind. The study of culture is performed in such disciplines as history, archeology, sociology, ethnography, study of art, anthropology, law and so on. At the same time there is no single opinion about the essence of culture. That is why numerous approaches to study of the culture, dozens of theoretical conceptions and patterns that are formed during the development of world philosophical thought exist. Philosophy of culture attempted to synthesize the theories about the essence and the meaning of the culture as a sphere or spiritual life, the main attention is paid to such aspects as the existence of cultural universals, generally valid temporal values, logical regulations of different culture spheres, understanding of the cultural phenomena as symbolic spheres, to the universal structure of the value consciousness, to the conceptions about the psycho-biological unity of mankind, ideas of the axial principles of the sense of the culture.
Idea of the culture which is understood as something whole, showed the level of development of the human rational basis, his abilities. Thus, I. Herder substantiating the idea of the human historical progress connected this progress to the culture development, to which he attributed the language, art, science, religion, family relationships, state administration, customs and traditions. Furthermore, it appears to him that the perception and the adoption of the culture, acquired by mankind is a necessary condition of the establishment as a person (so to speak “second, social birth”) for every individual .
Economic culture is a system of values and means of economic activity, loyal attitude towards any form of proprietary, wishing for success of commercial, business, farmer or any other activity, creation of the different conditions for the development of civic initiative in all the spheres of economic life of the country . There are two main approaches in the sociological researches of the impact of cultural factors on the economic development: the study of the impact on the economics of the certain culture types (morality, politics, religion and so on) and the study of the economic culture in general. Investigating the economic culture as an essential feature of the economics, one first needs to discover which essential features of the culture as a generic term the economic culture absorbed. This will allow to investigate features peculiar to a certain culture type. Among many definitions of the notion culture, the most prospective are those that connect understanding of it to the human activity, also to the accumulation and social transmission from generation to generation. The activity as the main source of the culture is considered by L. Huberskyi, V. Andrushchenko and M. Mykhalchenko . They point out that the connection of the culture to the human work, dynamic, transforming activity shows the very origin of the word “culture” (from Latin cultura – cultivation, tending, improvement) as the cultivating of the land, agricultural labour. A bit later this word acquired figurative meaning – enlightenment, upbringing, education. V. Dal unites both interpretations of this word: “culture, - he says, - is a tending and care, cultivation and cultivating; mental and moral education…” [5, p.217]. It is significant that in the notion of the culture the connection with the work (land cultivating, objects of human work in general) and the upbringing of the person may be seen. Economic culture appears on the certain stage of the development of socio-economic relations. The investigations of T. Zaslavska and R. Ryvkina indicate that on the early stages of human history socio-economic relations were formed under the pressure of social needs and interests. Relations of the social division of labour, employment, economic independence (self-dependence), division of job positions were connected to the models of culture of that time such as values, norms, traditions that took shape of certain norms economic behavior of classes, social groups and communities .
Understanding of formed institutes and vectors of socio-economic transformations, modern economic practices of any society is impossible without taking into account the cultural context, where the development of these economic and social processes occurs. Modern economic institutes depend on the historical trajectory line of one country or another and are “built-in” into historical-cultural systems that add them stability, durability and possibility to repulse changes. Under the economic culture we understand the complex of ideas, opinions, and habits, stereotypes of “market-type” person behavior that are realized in economic sphere of society and connected to economic activity. Economic culture simultaneously functions not only in the sphere of economics but also in the sphere of public relation. Thus, market relations are economic and social at the same time, as people realize their behavior on the goods and services market and perform the purchasing of different goods; on the labour market they fight for new positions necessary for self-realization and acquisition of income; on the financial market the operations with money are performed and so on. In the real life economic and social spheres function as a single unit, because social relations are always imbued with economic. For example, social conflicts between different groups of people who fight for the possession of the property as a rule emerge in the connection with the possibility of its redistribution. So, social conflict is of economic nature.
Economic culture is a subsystem of general national culture and is closely related to the rest of its components: political culture, legal, moral, religious and others. It is a product of historical economic experience of society on the whole, just as a personal life experience which is obtained during the process of socialization of each society member. Economic culture is multidimensional phenomenon which can be considered as a whole set of rational and irrational components. It contains both basic elements such as economic values and norms, formed and spread in the given society stereotypes and mythologems, ideas, conceptions and beliefs, economic traditions, and attitudes and orientations of people concerning the existing economic system at large, certain “game rules” and principles of interaction between individual and economic institutes. These components are conditioned by socio-economic, national cultural, socio-historical and other factors that are characterized by the consolidation and stability and the resistance to the rapid changes, even during the periods of deep transformations in social life – the exact situation we may observe under the conditions of transformational processes of Ukraine. The “market type” person is the bearer of economic culture and expresses this culture through the actions and the behavior in the society, acquiring this culture through the economic education and economic upbringing. In the life of a single person and a whole society politics, economics, science, art, economy and education create the integral system of national culture. It is possible to understand these elements through the prism of state and economy structure, religion, morality and science. Economic culture is the system society-recognized group values, social norms and patterns of behavior under the conditions of market economy. It is quite complex system that depends on the system of state administration, on the economic, psychological and managerial decisions.
Economic culture includes economic consciousness that is considered as one of the forms of public conscience that appears as the reflection of socio-economic conditions of existence and signifies the subjective economic world that is it provides for attitudes, orientations, values, motivations, preferences and so on. Yet, besides the elements of subjective world, the economic culture covers also such components as norms and existing game rules, patters of mass economic behavior, verbal reaction, economic symbolism and sign system that can be expressed not only orally, but also by other means and forms. The model of economic culture as the regulator of economic activity was suggested by the H. Sokolova .
In general, the structure of economic culture can be investigated on few levels: economic knowledge (the knowledge about economic system, its part, functions, decisions and actions, possibilities and tools of influence on the decision-making (cognitive operations)); economic feelings (specific generalized human feelings as to the attitude to human problems, satisfaction or dissatisfaction of which causes positive or negative emotions – joy, love, pride or sadness, shame and so on, evaluative orientations); the most widespread models of economic behavior in the society. Institutional component of the culture is based on the economic consciousness while the personalized component – on the economic thinking. Economic culture is a kind of social mechanism that recreates models of economic behavior. Economic culture is represented as the way of interaction between the society economic consciousness, individual’s economic thinking and social groups, which regulates them in the economic activity and gives the opportunity actualize oneself in the market environment.
The formation of individual’s economic culture is impossible without economic education. Thus, in the National doctrine of education development is stated that the education is the basis of the development of the person, society, nation and country, the guarantee of the future of Ukraine. It is the determining factor of political, socio-economic, cultural and scientific activity of the society. The education recreates and expands intellectual, spiritual and economic potential of the society . Under the conditions of today the economic education is the exact strategic resource of the welfare increasing, securing of national interests, strengthening of the authority and competitiveness of Ukraine on the international arena.
During the Soviet period in the terms of command administrative system people participated in the production relations and economic behavior was generally displayed in the household. Inclination to the prosperity earned by the honest employment was called the kulak’s private-proprietor’s psychology and the business and efficiency – profit, speculation and bourgeois life standards orientation. In Ukraine during the period of independence and the restructuring in all spheres of life the mentality of the “soviet man” which is based on the idea of state patronage is ruining gradually. People start realizing that every person should achieve the success independently, and the state and government can only guarantee and protect citizens’ rights and freedoms. These relations are especially seen between the youth and the elderly people, most of which didn’t succeed in restructuring way of thinking, view and the perception of the world.
Economic education arises as the mean of the economic thinking development and is realized in the form of economic behavior. The transition of Ukrainian economy to the market forms caused the considerable changes in the content of social sciences. During the long time economic education was in the isolation from the world economic science and practice of its teaching, it wasn’t studied and introduced. To perform the economic reforms the state should involve the whole population and above all the youth in the economic education which would give an opportunity to perceive events, going in the country, deliberately. In existing conditions the formation of new economic thinking became the social mandate. To fulfill this order it is necessary to develop the economic way of thinking among students, to form their readiness to act consciously and successfully on the consumer market, labour market, efficiently perform the housekeeping and run the business, to take the informed decisions, be a responsible taxpayer. The problems of economic education are inseparably connected to the human study, understanding of the individual’s role in the social processes, in economics.
Economic life of society is the everyday activity of the people who create the material and the spiritual values for the satisfaction of their needs. Economic education in Ukraine is one of the main forms of human adaptation to the changeable forms of life, based on the economics principles. Economic education should be investigated in the relation with other constituent parts of education.
Among the main tasks of economic education in the sphere of education one can single out the following: students mastering of the systematic knowledge, abilities and skills of economic activity; acquiring of abilities and skills of independent mastering and usage of economic knowledge, analyses and the evaluation economic phenomena and processes. In the sphere of self-discovery following tasks may be distinguished: the understanding of the personal economic potential, formation of durable skills of deliberate economic behavior and thinking, positive personal qualities, elaboration of the active life stance. In the sphere of motivation the development of the cognitive activity to the problems of economy, formation of the constant need in economic knowledge, aspiration for the civilized enterprise that should become the mean of social protection, adaptation of the youth to the market conditions of management.
In the process of economic education the economic thinking of the individual is developed. As stated by S. Mochernyi, economic thinking is the structural element of human thinking on the whole. The content of the human economic thinking is determined by the type of existing relations (economic, social, political, cultural, the nature of the legislative framework etc.), conditions of life, the place in the social structure and so on. We consider economic thinking as the system of individual beliefs on the regularities of economic development, essence of economic knowledge, ideas, and theories in the economic system. The determinant factor of the content of economic thinking is the nature of the existing proprietary relations, the ability of finding the optimal ways and variants of development to increase the efficiency of the separate business, field, national economy as a whole, mastering of the newest approaches of technological, design and engineering elaborations, mastering technical and technological culture, orientation to the most efficient usage of economic and natural resources etc. Correct economic thinking provides the rational management of human actions in the workplace, on a company scale (association), field of the national economy .
From many scientists investigating the peculiarities of economic thinking L. Alabakin should be singled out. In his work he demarcates the economic theory and typical mass economic thinking that determines the masses behavior, preparation and managerial decision-making . We agree on the point of view of A. Dvirna who considers economic thinking as the total of economic beliefs and conceptions that represent the newest achievements in science and the qualitative originality of the present stage of the social production development. Unlike the simple sum of knowledge, economic thinking is the active side of social mind. It directly determines the nature of the economic decisions and practical tasks for their accomplishment. For the modern economic thinking the scientific nature, realism in determination of the tasks and ways of solving them, the base on the economic methods of management, the rejection of the command and administration, orientation to the increasing of the production effectiveness and the usage of the intensive, qualitative factors of growth, accounting of growing interaction of economic, social and science and technical processes. Economic thinking manifests itself in the ability to give the correct evaluation to the tendencies and prospective of the social production development, real situation, emerging in the field, in the enterprise, to make real and efficient decisions, to foresee their consequences .
Two types of economic thinking can be distinguished: economic conventional thinking (the decision is made on the basis of common sense) and creative (connected with creation of new solution techniques for certain tasks and goal reaching, critical approach to existent economic forms etc.). Economic thinking and economic practice are in dialectical interaction, i.e. in inter-determination, interpenetration, mutual enrichment. Special laws of development and internal contradictions, relative independence within the framework of system of human thinking are peculiar to economic thinking. The important part in the formation and development of economic thinking belongs to economic education, which generalizes rational ideas, regulations of world's economic mind, relevantly shows realities of life and foresees the tendencies to their development. The important condition for a formation of a correct economic thinking is person's understanding of a national idea, national spirit, and national self-consciousness. While forming economic thinking of citizens one should thoroughly show all advantages and disadvantages of market, to create a firm belief, that market downsides are mostly overcame in the process of a government regulation of economics, improvement of planning system on enterprises, that market controls of the national economy should be organically united with a government regulation.
Economic thinking is mediated by different social forces, primarily by economic, which is formed under the immediate influence of the society economical structure. The level of readiness of economic thinking is directly influenced by the existent system of economic laws with corresponding mechanism of action and application. That is exact thing with objective character and subjective application mechanism is used while managing socio-economic processes and is the fundamental basis which defines economic thinking. The deeper the knowledge of economic laws, their complicated contradictory interaction, and interrelation the fuller economic thinking is. It’s mediated by the whole system of economic interactions. Economic laws show profound core of productive relations and form general, most abstract ideas in economic thinking about economic system of society.
Knowledge of the economic relations system is presented in form of corresponding categories in their unity and inter-determination. Factors that form the economic thinking directly are needs and their realization in form of interests, goals, desires etc. And, of course, in real economic life the form of industrial relations realization is economic mechanism as a whole.
Economic thinking, being a "product" of subject and object interaction, is dialectically connected with economy mechanism. Relative to the latter it acts as precondition, as condition, and as result of its functioning and improvement. From this perspective economic thinking is not only a method of economic reality cognition, but also a way of its changing. On the basis of economic structure learning, of which economic mechanism is an organic part, the factors changing subject's activity as: motivation for action, decision to act, orientation as an internal mobilization, readiness to act, an action, orientation realization, need of satisfaction, goal reaching are formed. Of course, this refers to qualities, which determine economic behaviour, or a system of logical and consistent ways of subject's impact on economy with the purpose of changing it. Interrelation of economic thinking and economic behaviour is studied in the course of economic behaviour theory – praxeology . Economic thinking is a notion which is always "on the move", in the development, that is determined by person’s internal needs, as well as by socio-economic environment surrounding it. The formation of economic thinking is mediated by theoretical and empirical levels of cognition, and is determined by the interaction of a subject and an object of economic reality.
Economic sphere of society is a determinant of all social processes in their historical development, that gives possibility to trace the wealth of the entire person's life activity; without constant manufacturing process society in general and person in particular would not have possibility for development. In Ukraine economical education is gaining in importance within the framework of national policy, this is connected both with information accumulation in various spheres of human life activities, as well as directly with external changes in the society i.e. with new cultural tendencies, new economic targets. Society's economic sphere of life and education are closely related, and this connection gives an opportunity for complex interdisciplinary conceptualization of tendencies, taking place in the Ukraine of present days and is connected with transformational processes in all spheres of life. Economic thinking, education and culture are integral parts of nowadays economical society, its level of development and the occurrence in everyday behavior of Homo Economicus. Economic thinking is a person's ideology of the economic development of phenomena, processes; economic culture in its turn represents ideas, beliefs and habits which are realized in all spheres of human existing in general and economical sphere in particular. They complement each other. Under conditions of globalization and European integration the question is not only about some local socio-economic transformations, but also about new economic system establishment, in which every member of society is to become a "market-type" personal.
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