Principles of teaching foreign literature in Ukrainian schools: the first stage of formation (1991–1995)
Adonina V. L.
PhD in Philology, assistant professor
Sevastopol Municipal Humanitarian University
The article deals with the premise of appearance a new humanitarian subject in Ukrainian schools, after the country has reached the sovereignty. The difficulty in forming this subject, such as lack of new textbooks, programmes, reading-books, qualitative translations of the world literature pieces in Ukrainian are searched. Scientists, methodists and Ukrainian teachers, having rejected from the Soviet methodology of Teaching Literature in schools were creating a new course policy and new principles – principles of teaching foreign literature in school.
Key Words: historiography of science, principles of teaching foreign literature in school, policy of school literature education, formation of a new subject.
Адонина Л.В. Первый этап становления методики преподавания зарубежной литературы в школах Украины (1991-1995).
Цель данной статьи состоит в изучении становления методики преподавания зарубежной литературы в школах Украины (1991–1995). Предмет «Зарубежная литература» был введен в украинскую школьную программу в 1991 году после получения страной государственной независимости, когда реформационные процессы не могли не коснуться и системы среднего образования. После распада Советского Союза в школах бывших союзных республик, кроме школ республики Беларусь, предмет «русская литература» был исключен из школьных программ. В школах Украины наряду с родной литературой начала изучаться литература мировая.
Историю украинской науки очень трудно проследить в ее интерналистском когнитивном измерении, как имманентный процесс, который не касается общественного контекста, потому что на ее развитие постоянно влияли политические, идеологические и экономические факторы. Появлению нового предмета способствовала не только гуманитаризация украинской школы, но и необходимость сохранить работу для тысяч преподавателей русской литературы, после того как этот предмет был изъят из школьных учебных планов.
Фактически речь шла о создании совсем нового школьного предмета. Его уникальность заключается в том, что произведения, которые в Украине входят в школьную программу (особенно старших классов), во всем мире изучаются студентами филологических специальностей в высших учебных заведениях. Зарубежная литература как отдельный предмет отсутствует во всех известных нам государственных школьных системах.
Безусловно, становление и развитие нового школьного гуманитарного предмета проходило достаточно сложно, несмотря на то, в Украине, ранее входившей в состав СССР, существовали своя сильная методическая база, свои научные методические школы, ученые-методисты, которые обогащали не только советскую, но и мировую методическую науку. В этот период издаются многочисленные пробные учебники, хрестоматии, создаются качественные переводы произведений мировой литературы на украинский язык.
Отказавшись от традиционной советской методологии преподавания литературы в школе, ученые, методисты и учителя Украины «на ходу», опытным путем создавали методические основы новой учебной дисциплины, которые исключали любую идеологическую предвзятость и ангажированность, стратегию нового курса, которая учитывала специфические особенности мирового историко-литературного процесса, определяла критерии смыслового наполнения предмета с учетом возрастных и психологических особенностей школьников.
Ключевые слова: историография науки, методика преподавания зарубежной литературы в школе, стратегии школьного литературного образования, становление нового предмета.
On different stages of social development, especially in the periods of changes political conditions, ideological setting-outs, values and educational paradigm scientists feel necessity to appeal to historic experience of home pedagogy.
History of teaching principles, like a history of any other science must reveal the mechanism of science development, put into practice the rational reconstruction of the historical transformation of the pedagogical science, contribute to the increase of the theoretical level in modern teaching principles, create premise for the precise valuation of significance its achievements. The critical analysis of the historical experience of teaching principles is the important source of the policy’s working-out in modern literature education, necessary basis for the scientific cognition, on the ground of which scientific-methodical conceptions appear. As a famous Ukrainian scientist V. Vernadsky claimed, «History of a science and its past must be critically arranged by every scientific generation and not only because funds of our knowledge are being changed, new documents are being disclosed or new ways of past restoration are being found… Moving forward, science not only creates the new, but inevitably overestimates the old, survived» .
Learning the process of the principles of school literature teaching’s formation gives a possibility to estimate its modern condition, to consider deeper and to analyze the dynamics of the pedagogical phenomena, which are particular for the definite social political and cultural conditions, to find out the properties of principles of teaching literature as a science, and also to represent the peculiarities of its formation in Ukraine clearly.
The aim of this article is to learn the formation of the principles of foreign literature teaching in the Ukrainian schools (1991-1995).
Works of V.N. Albatyrova, L.O. Bazille, A. Beletskiy, T.E. Benkovskaya, V.V. Golubkov, A.D. Grechishnikova, N.S. Derzhavin, G.N. Ionin, A.M. Krasnousov, A.R. Mazurkevich, L.F. Miroshnichenko, D.K. Motolskaya, Y.A. Rotkovich, I.E. Tselikova, V.F. Chertov, F.M. Shteinbuk and many others, dedicated to the learning of formation and development of the principles of teaching Ukrainian and Russian Literature in school in different historical periods are known in the principles of teaching literature.
Significant work on comprehension of the methodic heritage of the past, determination of its importance for school practice was performed by teachers-methodists, despite of the fact, that the history of the principles of teaching literature is a quite young research area of the pedagogical science, created in 30-s of the XXth century. But the history of the formation and development the principles of teaching the foreign literature is almost not searched.
The subject «Foreign Literature» was introduced in the Ukrainian schools in 1991, after the country had reached the sovereignty, when the reformation processes touched on the system of the secondary education. After the split of the Soviet Union the subject «Russian Literature» was excluded from school curricula in the states of the former USSR, except the schools in Byelorussia. The world literature started being taught in Ukrainian schools together with the native literature.
The phenomenon of the Ukrainian science is paradoxical: each state that develops its science creates an appropriate scientific space – relatively closed system of functioning science as a part of culture. There is a definite correlation between the state and the scientific space. The national character of the science is shown in this correlation. Before 1991 the scientific space of Ukraine was a part of a scientific space of the USSR. After the split of the USSR its scientific space broke, but it didn’t mean the automatic formation of the scientific spaces of the former soviet republics.
The history of the Ukrainian science is very hard to trace in its international cognitive dimension, like an immanent process, that doesn’t involve the social context, because the Ukrainian science was influenced by the political, ideological and economical factors.
Two important aspects stipulate the birth of a new subject. On the one hand, it’s the course of the Ukrainian secondary school directed on the humanization of education. On the other hand – necessity to keep a job for thousand Russian Literature teachers after this subject on account of obvious reasons had been withdrawn from the curricula.
Actually it was a question of creating an absolutely new subject. Its uniqueness lies in the fact that literary works which are included in the school curriculum in Ukraine (especially in the curriculum of the senior school) are studied in all over the world by the students of the philological departments in the higher schools. The foreign literature as a separate subject is absent from all famous for us state school systems.
Undoubtedly, the process of establishment of this subject was undergoing quite difficult, despite of the fact that Ukraine, the former Soviet Union Republic had its strong methodic basis, its scientific methodic schools, scientists-methodists, who enriched not only the Soviet, but also the world methodic science.
So, in 1992-1993 academic year schools of Ukraine received the programme of the subject called «Literature of the Nations», which offered a list of literary works for studying from the 5 th to the 11 th form. The programme was quite compact – there was only an explanatory note, which completely confused most teachers except the list of literary works, because teachers were allowed not only to allocate the total number of hours, allotted to the subject between the items of the given list, but also to renew this list in accordance with the texts availability by themselves, as they see fit: teachers were allowed some authors and their works to cross out, others – to include. The next academic year 1993–1994 the situation practically didn’t change – schools were provided with the new programme that was called «The Reference Programme “World Literature”».
Definitely, teacher has reached the long-expected freedom of choice. J.I. Sultanov, characterizing this period, noticed that peculiar features of that stage were «first of all, the search of the ways of over-coming consequences of the total ideologization as fiction in general, as school education, secondly, practically and intentionally there was returning to the modern school of the world famous art values, which were repressed, suppressed and edited by the cencorship, in the light of the supremacy the Soviet ideology in the Ukrainian schools» .
But most school practitioners were bewildered. Part of the literary works, which were carried over from the old Russian Literature ptogramme into the new Foreign Literature programme were familiar to the teachers, but the second part of the literary works included into these lists were absolutely unknown to them, or known, predominately according to the institute curricula, so the way of teaching without having the medical support, created a real problem
The textbooks, texts of the literary works were absent, even those, that had been taught in the Soviet schools, because Russian Literature textbooks were withdrawn from schools and destroyed.
Part of the teachers, «the old guard» despite the introducing of a new subject continued to teach according to the old programme the Russian literature, the second part – went deeper in teaching literature from the Christian point of view, the third – started teaching literary works forbidden earlier or inaccessible for the wide range of readers with pleasure.
Having refused the old, conventional for the Soviet times methodology of teaching literature in school, scientists, methodists, teachers of Ukraine «on the run», empirically were creating the methodic base of a new school subject, that would exclude any ideological prejudice and involvement, the policy of a new course, that would take into account specific features of the world history-literary process, would determine criteria of the notional content of the subject taking into consideration age-specific and psychological features of the school children.
The scholars responded to the idea of creating a new subject eagerly. Specialists of the Shevchenko Institute of Literature of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, National Pedagogical Dragomanov University, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev and other universities performed on the pages of the particularized press. The teachers and methodists were joining the discussion of a new subject’s programme.
The subject has overcome a long way. Scientists made sufficient effort, so that Foreign Literature (now the World Literature) as a subject would had clear methodology, aims and objectives, that it took its full place among other subjects.
This period many probe textbooks, reading-books are edited, qualitative translations of the world literary works in Ukrainian are created. In 1992-1993 academic year 60 variants of the curricula for the comprehensive schools in the professional journal «Vozrozhdenie» («Возрождение») were offered. Different problems of the principles of teaching literature in school are discussed hot.
Even the name of the subject has caused the argues – the subject changed its name three times in the first four years: «Literature of the Nations» (1992), «World Literature» (1993), and at last «Foreign Literature». The going programmes, their information overload tendentiousness and subjectivity in the material selection, their degree of russification divided the most.
The logical conclusion of the first stage of the process of formation and development of the principles of teaching foreign literature in school was appearance of the programme edited by K. Shakhova.
It was the first programme which was recommended by the Ministry of Education of Ukraine for the 5–11 forms of the comprehensive school with the Ukrainian language of teaching, and unlike all previous reference-thematic plan of the programme (1992) and reference programme (1993) the programme by K. Shakhova in the beginning 1995/1996 academic year received a status of a competent document and was almost absolutely supported by the reading textbooks on foreign literature recommended for 5–8 th forms and textbooks and reading-books for the 9–11 forms by the Ministry of Education.
Its appearance caused vivid argues, ambiguous teachers evaluations. The programme had not recommended, but obligatory way, that caused the general discontent, because first of all this programme, like the previous two, appeared in November, when the academic year started, secondly, many regions had been working already according their own programmes and textbooks.
One should be noticed, that the key problem of the teaching principles were not solved, and some have become even sharper. We will agree with J.I. Sultanov, «who thought, that on the first stage of the formation and statement of the World Literature as a school subject, any of the methodical principles hadn’t been formulated strict and based… and the problem of the so-called bringing-up teaching… hadn’t been led to the logical conclusion» .
But, despite the difficulty of formation these years, the new school subject «Foreign Literature» has become the integral part of the disciplines of the humanitarian cycle and the new system of education in schools of Ukraine.
Including of this course to the core curriculum defined it as a unique phenomenon not only in the home, but also in the European educational sphere. Just to this subject is assigned a task to the humanitarian bringing-up the youth, attracting them to the wealth of the world spiritual culture, mental and moral growth of a person, aesthetic bringing-up, in particular – training for life in the concrete historical socio-cultural area. The new subject in schools of Ukraine – is the evidence of our openness to the integration world.
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