The readiness to use the means of communication as a component of professional competence of a future specialist of preschool education
Kosenkova I. A.
an applicant of department of pedagogics of higher school and educational management of Tcherkasy national university of the name of Bohdan Khmelnytskii
a chief of the Tcherkasy local methodical office of educational establishments
Changes that take place in the economic, socio-political, scientific and technical spheres of society became the main reason of system transformation of professional education, including pedagogical one. The role of theoretical and practical preparation of future teachers rises in higher educational establishments? The process of becoming a specialist on the stage of of undergraduate education becomes complicated. The primary among the factors of modernisation of higher professional-pedagogical education are: acquisition of principles of pedagogical creativity and pedagogical mastery by the graduating students of establishments of higher education, updating of semantic constituent of studies, a search of sourses in correlation of theoretical and practical preparation of students, the introduction of multilevel preparation of pedagogical specialists.
The main role of becoming of young specialist for all further professionally-pedagogical activity is marked (S. Vershlovskyi, І. Karpjuk, K. Levytan, L. Lesohina, V. Nykytenko, Т. Poljakova). Researchers are form the different going near preparation of teachers at higher school(І. Зязюн, А. Кузьмінський, В. Кан-Калик, Г. Селевко, С. of Сисоєва, Н. Тарасенко). Different approaches to the preparation of teachers in a higher school were formed. (J. Babanskbi, Т. Illin, B.Lihachov, P.Pidkasystyi, P.Pidlasy. Subtasti, B.Slastjonin).
However, the modern idea of technologization of education formed in a certain part of researchers and educators the idea that the success of the educational process of educational establishments of the future will be ensured only by qualitatively used technology. Paying attention to the ideas of technologization of education, we can not agree with the idea that it eliminates the problem of pedagogical skillful. A truly humane society can not exist without a teacher - the spiritual leader, mentor, helper, who know the art of influence, awaken the idea, encourage. We believe that the development of the Ukrainian nation can be possible only because of the existence of well-educated, highly spiritual, intellectual parts - professional teachers. Nowadays great hopes rely on innovative professional training of preschool education as a student of a university should be created as one of the most important figures of a society. As the researchers note, it is much easier to transform the self-consciousness of the future specialist in the direction of national cultural and moral values than to try to change the settings of experienced teachers . We believe that the content and the multistage process of preparing future teachers in pedagogical universities is necessary to study with the considering the entire life of students and young professionals as a result of a complex variety of teaching and non-teaching factors as well as self-activity. The introduction to the research of valuable orientations of students of various courses of higher educational establishments shows that often enter the college people, who do not plan to continue to work in education or temporarily go to work there because of the inability to use their strength in other areas [10, 15; 17]. The transformation of interest to the profession of a teacher during the process of study confirms the conclusion that some students lose the interest in the future profession still in a higher educational establishment.
The studies of pedagogy and psychology of higher education there is a direct correlation of the efficiency of learning of its motivation. "Among the major goals facing every teacher, there is nothing more important and at the same time more complex task than forming in students a positive, sustained motivation that encourage to be persistent, systematic educational work" [7, 34]. The desire to work better, more efficiently occurs mainly under the influence of internal motivation: feelings of conscience and honor, the need for self-fulfillment, success, interest in the teaching profession. The source of personal development of future teachers of preschool education is an activity and communication in the field of education and self-education. The development of a new professional and personal level can be fulfilled mainly through personal efforts and student’s creativity. Inner influence primarily orients to the organization of conditions to stimulate activity of the individual. Thus, the use of internal resources to improve the training of students during the whole time of learning in a higher educational establishment we consider as a trigger of the formation of readiness for future activity and the formation of professional competence. Many Ukrainian and foreign scientists, including Bibik N., S. Vitvytska, A. Voznyuk, A. Dubasenyuk, A. Pometun, S. Sysoev, N. Talyzina are interested in the problem of formation of professional competence of future specialists in teaching in a higher education establishments [ 1, 2, 11, 14].
The competence and ownership system skills are the components of professionalism in any field. Under the professional competence of a teacher we understand the personality features that allow him to it to implement the objectives of the pedagogical process independently and effectively. Thus, N. Bibik considers the competence established quality, the result of the activity, "heritage" of the individual to "ensure the ability of graduates to meet the new demands of the market, have the appropriate capacity to solve practical problems in life, finding his" I "in the profession, and social structure "[11, 145]. L. Khoruzhaya defines professional competence as a set of theoretical knowledge, practical skills, experience, personal qualities of a teacher, the dialectical progress which ensures the efficiency and effectiveness of educational action" [15, 18]. Thus, the professional pedagogical competence is a unity of theoretical and practical readiness to the implementation of educational activities.
However, as I. Zyazyun notices professional and pedagogical competence of the specialist can be assessed only in practical activity and is defined as "the ability and willingness of a teacher to perform professional pedagogical functions in accordance with regulations and standards, requires actual knowledge, skills, experience accepted in society at this time, "[8, 234].
Considering the current educational practice and research in didactics of higher education allows the author to justify his own assumption that the improving of the professional competence of future specialists of preschool education in the sphere of communication caused by:
- studying the motives and stimulus of improving the studying and development on this basis of valuable understanding and constant self education of students;
- the use the opportunities of individual-typological, competence and active approaches in a higher pedagogical education;
- studying of the dynamics of communicative qualities of the teacher on the basis of cross-sections of the level of their formation;
- studying of the mechanisms and patterns of reserve establishment of educational technology of young professionals in local educational systems of a particular pre-school education;
- the creation of model of preparation for the using of communication in professional and educational activities of the future specialist of pre-school education, the study of social and educational conditions and problems of objective and subjective factors, considering of which provide to implementation of models;
- the development of complex components of the training of the professional activity of future teachers during the studying in a high educational establishments;
- the use of forms and methods of joint activity of the university and pre-school educational establishments in the professional development of students, and appropriate diagnostic tools.
The contradiction between the new requirements of the educational activities of the teacher as a person, capable for professional and personal self-determination and self-development, design and implementation of humanistic educational systems and technology and the real level of training and professional competencies of pre-school education require the resolution.
Methodological guideline in determining of the resolution of these objectives we believe the use of the ideas of competence, personal and active approaches in training of the future teachers of preschool education in a high educational establishment. The analysis of domestic and foreign research on didactics of higher education, allowed the author to specify the content of the competence approach as part of the individual-oriented educational paradigm in conjunction with the active approach, which is found in the following positions:
a) The competence-based approach does not contradict the essential features of a traditional approach, because it rejects the need to develop knowledge and skills, but focuses on their development to the level of structuring into activities that aims to implement creative goals in learning and foresee the development of the competence through specially organized process of the development of skills;
b) in order to achieve the development of skills to the level of competence and expertise it is necessary to establish a clear sequence of steps in this process;
c) the basic competencies required for the teaching and learning activities defined cognitive, communicative and reflective.
In determining the basic educational competencies of pedagogical activity we use the interpretation of the term "competence" as the ability to act in situations of uncertainty (VV Mariko) [5,5], which requires from the individual the correlation of their deeds with their own abilities (cognitive),with the norms and values of society (communicative) with their personal norms and values (reflective).
It should be stressed that the structure of key competence of standards of higher professional education, communicative competence as an independent unit together with other (value-contecstual, common cultural, scientific and educational, informative, social and labor competencies and competence of personal self-improvement)  as the communication as an exchange of information, the expression of opinions, ideas, knowledge is the cause and basis for the formation of new concepts, knowledge, consciousness and human culture.
In our study, under the professional competence of pre-school education of a specialist we understand the integrative professional and personal characteristics that reflect his professionalism, willingness to fulfill professional functions and achieve good results in teaching activities, which includes a set of professional competencies, the pedagogical, psychological, communicative, methodological, subject, research and so on.
In turn, the formation of each competence should be considered as an integral part of the overall process of establishing of professional competence of a teacher of preschool education, which focused on the change of the internal structure of professional and pedagogical competence and external forms of its manifestation leads to new qualitative states, the basis of which is the dialectical unity of potential and actual, as well as a self-regulation process as inner required movement, "self development" of the future specialist from the existing level of professional competence to higher according to the stages of this process.
Researchers have shown that competence as opposed to knowledge and skills, which are of a linear structure, have non-linear character, when some parts of competence can be located at different hierarchical levels and mutually influence each other. In particular, the construction of general competence of specialist John Raven provides, using nonlinear structure of the model itself, which includes educational competence as one of its subsystems [12, 178]. This means that directing the efforts to form competence in the field of communication in the future teachers of pre-school education, we help to consolidate two other basic cognitive and reflective skills, which in their turn positively affect the development of communicative competence. Undoubtedly, the best effect will be achieved by complex formation of all basic competencies of students. As you know, competence always implements in the activity. A teacher demonstrates communicative competence while solving professional tasks. Researchers emphasize the importance of studying the context in which competence is implemented. The nature of competence appears only in the organic unity with the values of the individual, that is, a deep personal interest in a particular kind of activity. In practice, the form Communicative competence of activity, which has personal value can be specific result (product), or form of action. Therefore, researchers of pedagogical communication, including B. Kang and M. Kalyk Nykandrov, note that in the training process of professional preparation is focused on the formation of the communicative competence of the individual and must be determined beforehand, and therefore the methods and means of its development [4, 37].
In psychology several aspects of preparation for the activities are distinguished:
a) motivating – is the system of encouraging qualities of a particular activity (the motivation of learning, achievement, self-fulfillment, etc.);
b) socio - psychological - the maturity level of communicative sphere of a personality, ability to implement a socially- purposeful activity, to maintain the relationships in a team, to avoid destructive conflicts, etc.;
c) Operative – to get a certain set of methods, knowledge and skills, as well as possible new experience within a certain activity;
d) psycho physiological - readiness of system of the body to operate in a certain direction.
The researchers stress that the process of professional self-determination of students is not a single-step act, but a system of reflex-evaluating actions aimed at understanding themselves (their vocational skills quality) recognition of themselves (their individual characteristics) and the recognition of something other (particular qualities of a child as a pupil) [9, 248]. According to the above mentioned, it can be claimed that the willingness of students to the use the means of communication in teaching activities in preschool education as a part of general readiness for professional and educational activities includes three main components: motivational value (attitudes and personal goals), cognitive (knowledge), action-communicative (skills and abilities). According to the subject of our research, we note that the separation of the structure of generally-vocational teacher commitment is contingent, abstract, theoretically adapted to solve research problems.
Obviously, each of these components provide general readiness for professional and pedagogical teacher preparation items, but the scope of our interests are specific elements that are characteristic for the future organizing by a student teaching and learning activity of children through the use of means of communication.
Based on the methodological principle of a leading role of motives and values in activities of an individual (O. Leontiev, V. Merlin, S. Rubinstein), we identified valuable attitude to the future specialist of pre-school education to the use of communication as a core structure of readiness.
Motivationally-valuable component of readiness reflects the willingness of a future spesialist orientation to problems associated with the assimilation and reflection theory of communication in their educational activities. State of psychological readiness is derived from the value of in-depth training in the field of application of the means of communication of the individuality of a student. We believe that without a psychological readiness it can not be captured a certain system of knowledge and skills. The effectiveness of training of students for the educational process with the use of means of communication in pre-school education is not possible without awareness of the importance of this factor, the desire to teach children through the new innovative methods, motivations and beliefs in the possibility of overcoming the difficulties in implementing the technology in the daily practice of teachers.
In our opinion, a motivational component is a leading one, system, around which cognitive and communicative components of studied readiness are surrounded. Exploring the needs and interests of students and future teachers is the starting step in preparing future specialists to using the means of communication.
We can develop such an attitude to the development of appropriate needs, interests and motivations of the individuality.
The cognitive component of readiness of future professionals of pre-school education to use means of communication should provide a number of requirements for their training. Among them we distinguish the following:
• organizational, allowing the instructor to carry out professionally the pedagogical process (conduct classes with a preschool child, be able to keep their attention on a particular phenomenon within a specified time, to make to be interested and motivate them to work);
• constructive, which gives the opportunity to see the prospects of the educational process, taking into account the peculiarities of a particular group of students and each child separately;
• researching, which help to explore the intellectual, emotional, creative, communicative abilities of each child and the group as a whole;
• informative, providing constant updating of their knowledge by learning new psycho-educational and instructional materials;
• communicative, that allow to build successful relationships with each pupil and with the groups of children . The presence of these capabilities enables friendly relations with colleagues, parents, administration and so on.
The content of cognitive component represents not only by theoretical knowledge of teaching of preschool children, but also by methodological knowledge according with the practical implementation of their educational process.
Psycho-pedagogical competence of a student’s knowledge based on methods and techniques of instruction and education of children, taking into account individual inclinations and abilities of each participant in the pedagogical process, using modern educational technology, which based on the organization of a group learning activities. So such competence of a future specialist of pre-school education can be defined as the ability to create the most favorable conditions for the development and self- development, to identify to use actively its individual features in the design of studies in groups of children (groups) based on modern teaching technologies.
Mastering the cognitive component of readiness allows the specialist of preschool education to implement effectively educational technologies in the educational process.
The main meaning for the formation of a future specialist of pre-school education in contemporary circumstances becomes scientific and theoretical values of educational activities; getting the professional knowledge, skills and communicative competence that allows already in the process of learning in a higher educational establishments of a student to identify the professional community.
The contest of action-communicative component is determined by the presence of pre-school education of future pre-school specialist of professional skills to use their professional activities and the full range of means of communication in the field of teaching and learning of preschool pupils, consistently and effectively implement all elements of verbal and non-verbal communication. According to this approach, we provide pre-school education to future professionals the knowledge of behavioral theory and technology that students can transfer to the concrete conditions of educational work with children
Another important task is the formation of students' communicative and technological culture of a teacher. The components of communicative activity is to encourage the interlocutor to implement the interchange partners of information, the organic use of verbal and non-verbal communication, active listening to communication, to update the content of the interlocutor according to the expectations and pedagogical appropriateness [6, 10 ]. Communicative and technological culture that is shaped and improved on the inner level, implemented in external actions. Etiquette included in the structure of interconnected and dynamic components of communicative and technological culture, promotes training of teachers and guides him to the need for further improvement.
A systematic approach to the analysis of readiness of professional activity of future teachers of preschool education makes the unity of all components of this process, which is based on continuous ensuring of intellectual, creative and professional development of the individuality of a student while studying at the university throughout his life.
In conclusion, we note that one of the most important features of the national higher education of teachers is the increasing of importance of competence of future specialists. The realities of today urgently require future specialist of pre-school education to be intellectually developed and socially active, apply a variety of educational technologies and means for the most important professional function - to prepare students to adapt and coexistence in a society. An appropriate level of competence is an integral part of the professional characteristics of future teachers of pre-school education.