Conceptual Basis of Political Conjuncture
postgraduate of Political Science Department,
Petro Mohyla Black Sea State University,
Концептуальные основы политической конъюнктуры
Аннотация: политическая конъюнктура представляет собой новую концепцию политической теории. Эта проблема является важной и интересной для нашей молодой страны. Заполняя пробел в предыдущих исследованиях, в статье анализируются теоретико-методологические основы концепции конъюнктуры и политической конъюнктуры. Термин «конъюнктура», используется в мировой экономической и политической мысли. Методы сравнения и экстраполяции в статье использованы. Существует также определение и основные различия между понятиями политическая кон`юнктура и кон`юнктура в новой политической теории в Украине.
Ключевые слова: теория политики, конъюнктуры, политической конъюнктуры, особенности политической конъюнктуры, идеологии конъюнктуры, политической ситуации.
Abstracts: Political conjuncture is a new concept of political theory. This problem is important and interesting for our young country. Indicating a gap in the previous research the article analyzes the theoretical-methodological basis of the concept of conjuncture and political conjuncture. The term "conjuncture" used in the world economic and political thought. The methods of comparison and extrapolation in the article are used. There is also a definition and principal findings in New Ukraine political theory of the definition between conjuncture and political conjuncture.
Key words: theory of politics, conjuncture, the political conjuncture, features of the political conjuncture, the conjuncture ideology, the political situation.
In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in political conjuncture. The concept originated with the conditions of economic theory. The term used more in a negative sense. Refers to the situation prevailing in this area and influences the process, circumstances and decisions. However, to capture the moment of political reality and its use is positive, then in other areas of society that leads to excessive politicization, and as a consequence - the complete dependence on changes in policy. Despite the importance of it, little attention has been paid to the connection between politic and education. The urgency of the topic associated with the specifics of our country. Also, it associated with the history of the region. In the USSA, the political conjuncture increases to gigantic sizes. All processes in the country took place with careful selection of actions and processes in society, which would have met the party - the ideological direction of policy. It had left its mark on the political and social life of our country. Therefore, full understanding and description of the conceptual basis of this phenomenon the political reality of modern Ukraine is an essential element of modern political theory. This paper focuses on describing the conceptual basis of the concept of "political conjuncture" in the theory of political science research and interpretation of this term in different countries.
In the article, we used such methods as comparison, analysis, synthesis and linguistic method.
The term "situation" arose in ancient Rome meant to describe the situation, combine different things. The term came from Latin "conjunctura" and "conjungo" - connecting. In economic theory, the concepts of conjuncture used to identify conditions that influence on dynamics of market prices, business activity and market supply and demand. Term in economic thought does not contain a negative tone in contrast to the term political conjunctura. The conjunctura in economy is primarily conformation to changes in the market to support match supply and demand for profit that is completely natural process for the economic market. The word "conjuncture" for economic theory in the broad sense means the totality of the conditions prevailing in the economic market at a time. Condition includes a set of interdependent conditions that determine the transition from one state to another.
The concept of conjunctura investigated such famous local and foreign scholars in economic research, as F.Lassalle, W.Repka and W.Zombart, A.Sheffle, D.Oparin, P.Levshyn, D.Kostyuhin, I.Belyaevsky, C.Pervushin, M.Kondratyev, I.Karpov, V.Kucherenko, G.Kovalevsky et. These studies are determining conditions in the economy and questions related to the situational research in economics. According to the Russian economist N.Kondratiev, more or less clearly term conditions was determined F.Lassalle in his polemical work with F.Shultse-Delichem where the notion of situation was equal with representations of a linked set of all existing unknown circumstances surrounding the man mercantile world. F.Lassalle invested in the notion of situation is too broad and indefinite meaning: "Conjunctio rerum omnium" (combination of existing connection).
Since the XVII century, the concept of "conjunctura" was accepted by a sense of state of affairs, temporary relationships. A.Sheffle the term "political conjuncture" compared with the totality of unpredictable and independent of external influences, which the actors could feel at any time. Since the XVII century the concept of "conjunctura" was accepted by a sense of "state of affairs, temporary relationships" [8, 193].
The term state of affairs in different countries and languages is treated differently and has some content features. On the English word "conjuncture", "juncture", "state of affairs" "state of the market" translated into our language as the situation and state of the market . To indicate a condition in the policy is used the term political situation [6, 95]. This interpretation of the term in English does not fully disclose the essence of the concept of the political conjuncture because the political situation does not include such a process as the impact of the political situation in the feedback, that adjustment of social processes and phenomena in the political situation.
In the German language "konjunktur" [1, 109] translated as economic term. German explanatory dictionary gives the following meaning of the term "conjuncture" - the total economic situation and development of the country or certain regions, is a conjuncture of the rise and fall in cycles. There are conjunctures of "ups" and "downs", stability conjuncture of regions, countries and others [9, 597].
The definition of "conjuncture" is given in Russian dictionaries and encyclopedias. There are dictionaries V.Ozhehova, N.Webster, A.Ushakov, F.Brockhaus and I.Efron and others. In particular, the Russian scientist V.Danilenko divides the state of affairs in the area of distribution and in modern political dictionary. He gives the following interpretation of the term: "market conditions" - (from lat. "Conjungo"- binds, connects) - a set of conditions, the situation which has developed regulations that happened at a specific point in the defined area of activity, for example, the political situation, the international situation, economic situation" [2, 320].
Conjuncture in the Ukrainian explanatory dictionary as for the meaning is different from Russian dictionaries - a set of specific conditions, coincidence, things that can affect the solution, solving some problem - any business, issues, etc. .
G.Lyubovets in Ukrainian political dictionary defined the notion of political conjuncture - a metaphorical term that refers to a set of political conditions and events and turning them into action, comprehensive interrelation between interdependence of certain political situations and opportunities for implementation of political technologies. In everyday political vocabulary political conjuncture - the moment of change (not always for the best) due to truncation sustainable way of action, custom, method, etc. Moreover, the man of political "conjuncture"- a politician with an active orientation of circumstances favorable moments to novelty (fake or under it), which is short for selfish purposes demagogically denies continuity in the society [5, 294].
That political sphere is the most vulnerable and sensitive to fluctuations. We believe that without the political situation and the dynamics of political processes is not possible an effective policy. However, manifestations of political conditions appear to be very noticeable to other areas of society, as they may be imperatively dependent on government. It is areas such as education and science, health care, environment, labor, industry and others.
Influence on the political situation is most noticeable to the public. Because the topics that pronounce modern politicians immediately covered by the media and become a tool of manipulation for their useful purpose political subjects. The consequence of the dominance of politics in society formed such a thing as tactical ideology. It is excellent in function of political ideology, because it does not seek to integrate and attract masses of fans, but it is part of politics and political ideology of the state. Distributed mainly among the phenomenon of politically active people and politicians who are dependent on political leadership. Tactical ideology becomes part of the governing bodies. Moreover, is supporting the general political course in the country. Their lead to political situation is a tribute to adherence.
State kind of ideology of developing countries that only pass on democratic development, in the author's opinion, have no clear ideology, so because of the necessity of ideological component of policies it take place non ideology, including tactical ideology and economic interest. The main task of the authorities involved in such countries is to obtain and retain power. The structures and institutions that are dependent on the will of the state and directly subordinate to it are dependent on fluctuations in policy, and consequently tuned for them. In such countries, significantly change the processes of public political culture and political socialization of citizens in the area of absenteeism and negativism.
Conclusions: we can summarize that the political conjuncture refers to the process of dealing with political process and conditions and is a comprehensive and quick-a phenomenon that reflects the dynamism and spontaneity, predictability of a complex society and politics. This is because conditions are shaped by many elements and actions, which in turn are subject to probabilistic laws. The political conjuncture has different properties and levels (depending on the political regime and political system). Conditions characterized by persistent volatility and considerable fluctuations, is controversial, because different tactical performance in the same time reflect the opposite trend; irregularity, which can be shown when the dynamics of various parameters has the same direction, but do not match their pace; situation is the unity of opposites. Condition is some reflection and dynamic economy, politics and world politics. In addition, since, the world of politics and economic are dynamically variable, then the situation reflects the trends, controversies, and patterns.
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